Selasa, 25 Januari 2011


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Moai, or mo‘ai (pronounced /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/), are monolithic human figures carved from rock on the Polynesian island of Easter Island, Chile between the years 1250 and 1500.[1] Nearly half are still at Rano Raraku, the main moai quarry, but hundreds were transported from there and set on stone platforms called ahu around the island's perimeter. Almost all moai have overly large heads three-fifths the size of their bodies. The moai are chiefly the living faces (aringa ora) of deified ancestors (aringa ora ata tepuna).[2] The statues still gazed inland across their clan lands when Europeans first visited the island, but most would be cast down during later conflicts between clans.

The 887 statues'[3] production and transportation is considered a remarkable creative and physical feat.[4] The tallest moai erected, called Paro, was almost 10 metres (33 ft) high and weighed 75 tonnes;[5] the heaviest erected was a shorter but squatter moai at Ahu Tongariki, weighing 86 tons; and one unfinished sculpture, if completed, would have been approximately 21 metres (69 ft) tall with a weight of about 270 tons.

* 1 Description
o 1.1 Characteristics
+ 1.1.1 Eyes
+ 1.1.2 Pukao topknots and headdresses
+ 1.1.3 Markings (post stone working)
* 2 History
o 2.1 Craftsmen
o 2.2 Transportation
o 2.3 1722–1868 toppling of the moai
o 2.4 Removal
* 3 Preservation and restoration
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 External links

[edit] Description
Six of the fifteen moai at Ahu Tongariki
Moai set in the hillside at Rano Raraku

The moai are monolithic statues, their minimalist style related to forms found throughout Polynesia. Moai are carved in relatively flat planes, the faces bearing proud but enigmatic expressions. The over-large heads (a three-to-five ratio between the head and the body, a sculptural trait that demonstrates the Polynesian belief in the sanctity of the chiefly head) have heavy brows and elongated noses with a distinctive fish-hook-shaped curl of the nostrils. The lips protrude in a thin pout. Like the nose, the ears are elongated and oblong in form. The jaw lines stand out against the truncated neck. The torsos are heavy, and, sometimes, the clavicles are subtly outlined in stone. The arms are carved in bas relief and rest against the body in various positions, hands and long slender fingers resting along the crests of the hips, meeting at the hami (loincloth), with the thumbs sometimes pointing towards the navel. Generally, the anatomical features of the backs are not detailed, but sometimes bear a ring and girdle motif on the buttocks and lower back. Except for one kneeling moai, the statues do not have legs.

Though moai are whole-body statues, they are commonly referred to as "Easter Island heads". This is partly because of the disproportionate size of most moai heads and partly because, from the invention of photography until the 1950s, the only moai standing on the island were the statues on the slopes of Rano Raraku, many of which are buried to their shoulders. Some of the "heads" at Rano Raraku have been excavated and their bodies seen, and observed to have markings that had been protected from erosion by their burial.

All but 53 of the 887 moai known to date were carved from tuff (a compressed volcanic ash). At the end of carving, the builders would rub the statue with pumice from Rano Raraku, where 394 moai and incomplete moai are still visible today (there are also 13 moai carved from basalt, 22 from trachyte and 17 from fragile red scoria).[6]
[edit] Characteristics
Re-erected tuff moai at Ahu Tahai with restored pukao and replica eyes

Easter Island statues are known for their large, broad noses and strong chins, along with rectangle-shaped ears and deep eye slits.
[edit] Eyes

In 1979, Sergio Rapu Haoa and a team of archaeologists discovered that the hemispherical or deep elliptical eye sockets were designed to hold coral eyes with either black obsidian or red scoria pupils.[citation needed] The discovery was made by collecting and reassembling broken fragments of white coral that were found at the various sites. Subsequently, previously uncategorized finds in the Easter Island museum were re-examined and recategorized as eye fragments. It is thought that the moai with carved eye sockets were probably allocated to the ahu and ceremonial sites, suggesting that a selective Rapa Nui hierarchy was attributed to the moai design until its demise with the advent of the Birdman religion, Tangata Manu.[citation needed]
[edit] Pukao topknots and headdresses
Main article: Pukao

Some moai had pukao on their heads; these were carved out of red scoria, a very light rock from a quarry at Puna Pau.
Hoa Hakananai'a in the British Museum
[edit] Markings (post stone working)

When first carved, the surface of the moai was polished smooth by rubbing with pumice. Unfortunately, the easily worked tuff from which most moai were carved is also easily eroded, and, today, the best place to see the surface detail is on the few moai carved from basalt or in photographs and other archaeological records of moai surfaces protected by burial.

Those moai that are less eroded typically have designs carved on their backs and posteriors. The Routledge expedition of 1914 established a cultural link[7] between these designs and the island's traditional tattooing, which had been repressed by missionaries a half-century earlier. Until modern DNA analysis of the islanders and their ancestors, this was key scientific evidence that the moai had been carved by the Rapa Nui and not by a separate group from South America.

At least some of the moai were painted; Hoa Hakananai'a was decorated with maroon and white paint until 1868, when it was removed from the island. It is now housed in the British Museum, London.
[edit] History
Map of Easter Island using moai to show locations of various ahu

The statues were carved by the Polynesian colonizers of the island, mostly between circa 1250 CE and 1500 CE.[1] In addition to representing deceased ancestors, the moai, once they were erected on ahu, may also have been regarded as the embodiment of powerful living or former chiefs and important lineage status symbols.

Completed statues were moved to ahu mostly on the coast, then erected, sometimes with red stone cylinders (pukao) on their heads. Moai must have been extremely expensive to craft and transport; not only would the actual carving of each statue require effort and resources, but the finished product was then hauled to its final location and erected.

The quarries in Rano Raraku appear to have been abandoned abruptly, with a litter of stone tools, many completed moai outside the quarry awaiting transport and almost as many incomplete statues still in situ as were installed on ahu. In the nineteenth century, this led to conjecture that the island was the remnant of a sunken continent and that most completed moai were under the sea. That idea has long been debunked, and now it is understood that:

* Some statues were rock carvings and never intended to be completed.
* Some were incomplete because, when inclusions were encountered, the carvers would abandon a partial statue and start a new one[8] (tuff is a soft rock with occasional lumps of much harder rock included in it).
* Some completed statues at Rano Raraku were placed there permanently and not parked temporarily awaiting removal.[9]
* Some were indeed incomplete when the statue-building era came to an end.

[edit] Craftsmen

The moai were either carved by a distinguished class of professional carvers who were comparable in status to high-ranking members of other Polynesian craft guilds, or, alternatively, by members of each clan. The oral histories show that the Rano Raraku quarry was subdivided into different territories for each clan.
[edit] Transportation

Since the island was treeless by the time the Europeans first visited, the movement of the statues was a mystery for a long time; pollen analysis has now established that the island was almost totally forested until 1200 CE. The tree pollen disappeared from the record by 1650, and the statues stopped being made around that time.

It is not known exactly how the moai were moved across the island, but the process almost certainly required human energy, ropes, and possibly wooden sledges (sleds) and/or rollers, as well as leveled tracks across the island (the Easter Island roads).

Oral histories recount how various people used divine power to command the statues to walk. The earliest accounts say a king named Tuu Ku Ihu moved them with the help of the god Makemake, while later stories tell of a woman who lived alone on the mountain ordering them about at her will. Scholars currently support the theory that the main method was that the moai were "walked" upright (some assume by a rocking process), as laying it prone on a sledge (the method used by the Easter Islanders to move stone in the 1860s) would have required an estimated 1500 people to move the largest moai that had been successfully erected. In 1998, Jo Anne Van Tilburg suggested fewer than half that number could do it by placing the sledge on lubricated rollers. In 1999, she supervised an experiment to move a nine-ton moai. They attempted to load a replica on a sledge built in the shape of an A frame that was placed on rollers. A total of 60 people pulled on several ropes in two attempts to tow the moai. The first attempt failed when the rollers jammed up. The second attempt succeeded when they embedded tracks in the ground. This was on flat ground; further experiments may be necessary to determine whether this will work on rougher terrain.[10]
Sign indicating the protected status of the moai

In 1986, Pavel Pavel, Thor Heyerdahl and the Kon Tiki Museum experimented with a five-ton moai and a nine-ton moai. With a rope around the head of the statue and another around the base, using eight workers for the smaller statue and 16 for the larger, they "walked" the moai forward by swiveling and rocking it from side to side; however, the experiment was ended early due to damage to the statue bases from chipping. Despite the early end to the experiment, Thor Heyerdahl estimated that this method for a 20-ton statue over Easter Island terrain would allow 320 feet (98 m) per day. Other scholars concluded that it was probably not the way the moai were moved.[10][11]

Around the same time, archaeologist Charles Love experimented with a 10-ton replica. His first experiment found rocking the statue to walk it was too unstable over more than a few hundred yards. He then found that placing the statue upright on two sled runners atop log rollers, 25 men were able to move the statue 150 feet (46 m) in two minutes. In 2003, further research indicated this method could explain the regularly spaced post holes where the statues were moved over rough ground. He suggested the holes contained upright posts on either side of the path so that as the statue passed between them, they were used as cantilevers for poles to help push the statue up a slope without the requirement of extra people pulling on the ropes and similarly to slow it on the downward slope. The poles could also act as a brake when needed.[12]
[edit] 1722–1868 toppling of the moai

After the 1722 Roggeveen visit, all of the moai that had been erected on ahus were toppled, with the last standing statues reported in 1838 by Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars, and no upright statues by 1868,[13] apart from the partially buried ones on the outer slopes of Rano Raraku. Oral histories indicate that this was part of a deadly conflict among the islanders, rather than an earthquake or other cause. Moai were usually toppled forwards to have their faces hidden and often were toppled in such a way that their necks broke. Today, about 50 moai have been re-erected on their ahus or museums elsewhere.[clarification needed][citation needed]
[edit] Removal
Main article: Relocation of moai objects

Eleven or more moai have been removed from the island and transported to locations around the world, including six out of the thirteen moai that were carved from basalt.
[edit] Preservation and restoration
It is forbidden for visitors to climb on the moai.

From 1955 through 1978, an American archaeologist, William Mulloy, undertook extensive investigation of the production, transportation and erection of Easter Island's monumental statuary. Mulloy's Rapa Nui projects include the investigation of the Akivi-Vaiteka Complex and the physical restoration of Ahu Akivi (1960); the investigation and restoration of Ahu Ko Te Riku and Ahu Vai Uri and the Tahai Ceremonial Complex (1970); the investigation and restoration of two ahu at Hanga Kio'e (1972); the investigation and restoration of the ceremonial village at Orongo (1974) and numerous other archaeological surveys throughout the island.

The Rapa Nui National Park and the moai are included on the 1994 list of UNESCO World Heritage sites and consequently the 1972 UN convention concerning the protection of the world's cultural and natural heritage.

The EISP (Easter Island Statue Project) is the latest research and documentation project of the moai on Rapa Nui and the artifacts held in museums overseas. The purpose of the project is to understand the figures' original use, context, and meaning, with the results being provided to the Rapa Nui families and the island's public agencies that are responsible for conservation and preservation of the moai.

In 2008, a Finnish tourist chipped a piece off the ear of one moai. The tourist was fined $17,000 in damages and was banned from the island for three years.[14][15]


Great Pyramid of Giza

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Piramida Agung Giza Great Pyramid of Giza
Lokasi Location Giza , Egypt Giza , Egypt
Status Status Selesai dibangun Completed
Dibangun Built sekitar 2560 SM around 2560 BC
Ketinggian Height
Atap Roof 138.8 m, 455.2 ft 138.8 m, 455.2 ft
(Tinggi sebenarnya: 146.6 m, 480.9 ft) (Height in fact: 146.6 m, 480.9 ft)
Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia Kuno Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Pyramid Piramida Agung Giza Great Pyramid of Giza
Hanging Gardens Taman Gantung Babilonia Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Statue of Zeus Patung Zeus di Olympia Statue of Zeus at Olympia
Temple of Artemis Kuil Artemis di Efesus Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Mausoleum Mausolus Mausoleum Mausolus Mausoleum Mausolus
Colossus Colossus Rodos Colossus of Rhodes
Lighthouse of Alexandria Mercusuar Iskandariyah Lighthouse of Alexandria

Piramida Agung Giza adalah piramida tertua dan terbesar dari tiga piramida yang ada di Nekropolis Giza dan merupakan satu-satunya bangunan yang masih menjadi bagian dari Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia . Great Pyramid of Giza is the Pyramid of the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in Giza Nekropolis and is the only building that was still part of the Seven Wonders of the World . Dipercaya bahwa piramida ini dibangun sebagai makam untuk firaun dinasti keempat Mesir , Khufu (Χεωψ, Cheops) dan dibangun selama lebih dari 20 tahun dan diperkirakan berlangsung pada sekitar tahun 2560 SM . [1] . It is believed that the pyramids were built as tombs for pharaohs fourth dynasty of Egypt , Khufu (Χεωψ, Cheops) and constructed over 20 years and is expected to take place in about 2560 BC . [1] . Piramida ini kadang-kadang disebut sebagai Piramida Khufu . [2] This pyramid is sometimes referred to as the Pyramid of Khufu. [2]
[ sunting ] Sejarah [ edit ] History

Piramida Agung Giza adalah bagian utama dari kompleks bangunan makam yang terdiri dari dua kuil untuk menghormati Khufu (satu dekat dengan piramida dan satunya lagi di dekat Sungail Nil), tiga piramida yang lebih kecil untuk istri Khufu, dan sebuah piramida "satelit" yang lebih kecil lagi, berupa lintasan yang ditinggikan, dan makam-makam mastaba berukuran kecil di sekeliling piramida para bangsawan. Great Pyramid of Giza is the main part of the tomb complex of buildings which consists of two temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near Sungail Nile), three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives, and a pyramid of "satellite" of smaller Again, the form of an elevated track, and the tombs mastaba small around the pyramid for nobles. Salah satu dari piramida-piramida kecil itu menyimpan makan ratu Hetepheres (ditemukan pada tahun 1925), adik, dan istri Sneferu serta ibu dari Khufu. One of the small pyramids queen keeps eating Hetepheres (discovered in 1925), sister and wife Sneferu and mother of Khufu. Juga ditemukan sebuah kota, termasuk sebuah pemakaman, toko-toko roti, pabrik bir, dan sebuah kompleks peleburan tembaga. There was a town, including a cemetery, bakeries, breweries, and a copper smelting complex. Lebih banyak lagi bangunan dan kompleks ditemukan oleh Proyek Pemetaan Giza. More buildings and complexes are found by the Giza Mapping Project.

Beberapa ratus meter di barat daya Piramida Agung terdapat sebuah piramida yang sedikit lebih kecil, Piramida Khafre , salah satu penerus Khufu yang juga dianggap sebagai pembangun Sphinx Agung , dan beberapa meter lebih jauh ke barat daya adalah Piramida Menkaure , penerus Khafre, yang ketinggian piramidanya sekitar separuhnya. A few hundred yards southwest of the Great Pyramid there is a slightly smaller pyramid, Pyramid of Khafre , one of Khufu's successors who is also regarded as the builder of the Great Sphinx , and a few yards farther to the southwest is the Pyramid of Menkaure , Khafre's successor, the pyramid height of about half.

Perkiraan waktu penyelesaian Piramida ini disepakati sekitar tahun 2560 BC. [3] Estimated time of completion of this pyramid was agreed about the year 2560 BC. [3]

Wazir Khufu, Hemon , atau Hemiunu , dipercaya sebagai arsitek dari Piramida Agung. [4] Wazir Khufu, Hemon , or Hemiunu , believed to be the architect of the Great Pyramid

eiffel tower

Eiffel Tower
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Eiffel Tower
La Tour Eiffel
Tour Eiffel Wikimedia Commons.jpg
The Eiffel Tower as seen from the Champ de Mars
Eiffel Tower was the world's tallest building from 1889 to 1930.[I]
General information
Location Paris, France
Coordinates 48°51′30″N 2°17′40″E / 48.8583°N 2.2945°E / 48.8583; 2.2945Coordinates: 48°51′30″N 2°17′40″E / 48.8583°N 2.2945°E / 48.8583; 2.2945
Status Complete
Constructed 1887–1889
Opening March 31, 1889
Use Observation tower,
Radio broadcasting tower
Antenna or spire 324.00 m (1,063 ft)
Roof 300.65 m (986 ft)
Top floor 273.00 m (896 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 3
Elevators 7
Companies involved
Architect(s) Stephen Sauvestre
Structural engineer Maurice Koechlin,
Émile Nouguier
Contractor Gustave Eiffel & Cie
Owner France City of Paris, France (100%)
Management Société d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE)
References: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]
^ Fully habitable, self-supported, from main entrance to highest structural or architectural top; see the list of tallest buildings in the world for other listings.

The Eiffel Tower (French: La Tour Eiffel, [tuʁ ɛfɛl], nickname La dame de fer, the iron lady) is an 1889 iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris that has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The tallest building in Paris,[10] it is the most-visited paid monument in the world; millions of people ascend it every year. Named for its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the tower was built as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair.

The tower stands 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. Upon its completion, it surpassed the Washington Monument to assume the title of tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years, until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. Not including broadcast antennas, it is the second-tallest structure in France after the 2004 Millau Viaduct.

The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can be purchased to ascend, by stairs or lift, to the first and second levels. The walk to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the walk from the first to the second level. The third and highest level is accessible only by elevator. Both the first and second levels feature restaurants.

The tower has become the most prominent symbol of both Paris and France, often in the establishing shot of films set in the city.

* 1 History
o 1.1 Timeline of events
o 1.2 Engraved names
* 2 Design of the tower
o 2.1 Material
o 2.2 Wind considerations
o 2.3 Maintenance
o 2.4 Aesthetic considerations
* 3 Tourism
o 3.1 Popularity
o 3.2 Passenger Elevators
+ 3.2.1 Ground to the second level
+ 3.2.2 Second to the third level
o 3.3 Restaurants
* 4 Attempted Relocation
* 5 Reproductions
* 6 Communications
o 6.1 FM-radio
o 6.2 Television
* 7 Image copyright claims
* 8 In popular culture
* 9 Taller structures
o 9.1 Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower
o 9.2 Architectural structures in France taller than the Eiffel Tower
* 10 Other structures carrying this name
* 11 Gallery
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links

Eiffel Tower under construction in July 1888
Eiffel Tower Construction view: girders at the first story
Vue Lumière No 992 - Panorama pendant l'ascension de la Tour Eiffel (1898).ogv
Play video
Panoramic view during ascension of the Eiffel Tower by the Lumière brothers, 1898
25 August 1944: American soldiers watch as the Tricolor flies from the Eiffel Tower again.
A video of the jump
Play video
Franz Reichelt's preparations and fall from the Eiffel Tower.
Lightning strikes the Eiffel Tower on June 3, 1902, at 9:20 P.M.
Adolf Hitler with the Eiffel Tower in the background

The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. Eiffel was assisted in the design by engineers Émile Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin and architect Stephen Sauvestre.[11] The risk of accident was great as, unlike modern skyscrapers, the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use of movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died. The tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889, and opened on 6 May.

The tower was much criticised by the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore. Newspapers of the day were filled with angry letters from the arts community of Paris. One is quoted extensively in William Watson's US Government Printing Office publication of 1892 Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture: "And during twenty years we shall see, stretching over the entire city, still thrilling with the genius of so many centuries, we shall see stretching out like a black blot the odious shadow of the odious column built up of riveted iron plates."[12] Signers of this letter included Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, Charles Gounod, Charles Garnier, Jean-Léon Gérôme, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, and Alexandre Dumas.

Novelist Guy de Maupassant—who claimed to hate the tower[13]—supposedly ate lunch in the Tower's restaurant every day. When asked why, he answered that it was the one place in Paris where one could not see the structure. Today, the Tower is widely considered to be a striking piece of structural art.

One of the great Hollywood movie clichés is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower. In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to 7 stories, only a very few of the taller buildings have a clear view of the tower.

Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years; it was to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it could be easily demolished) but as the tower proved valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit. The military used it to dispatch Parisian taxis to the front line during the First Battle of the Marne.
Timeline of events

10 September 1889

Minggu, 23 Januari 2011


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Acropolis (Greek: Ακρόπολις) means "highest city" in Greek, literally city on the extremity and is usually translated into English as Citadel (akros, akron,[1] edge, extremity + polis, city, pl. acropoleis). For purposes of defense, early people naturally chose elevated ground to build a new settlement, frequently a hill with precipitous sides. In many parts of the world, these early citadels became the nuclei of large cities, which grew up on the surrounding lower ground, such as modern Rome.

The word acropolis, although Greek in origin and associated primarily with the Greek cities Athens, Argos, Thebes, and Corinth (with its Acrocorinth), may be applied generically to all such citadels, including Rome, Jerusalem, Celtic Bratislava, many in Asia Minor, or even Castle Rock in Edinburgh. An example in Ireland is the Rock of Cashel.

The most famous example is the Acropolis of Athens,[2] which, by reason of its historical associations and the several famous buildings erected upon it (most notably the Parthenon), is known without qualification as the Acropolis. Although originating in the mainland of Greece, use of the acropolis model quickly spread to Greek colonies such as the Dorian Lato on Crete during the Archaic Period.

Because of its classical Greco-Roman style, the ruins of Mission San Juan Capistrano's Great Stone Church in California, United States has been called the "American Acropolis".[citation needed]

Other parts of the world developed other names for the high citadel or alcázar, which often reinforced a naturally strong site. In Central Italy, many small rural communes still cluster at the base of a fortified habitation known as La Rocca of the commune.

The term acropolis is also used to describe the central complex of overlapping structures, such as plazas and pyramids, in many Mayan cities, including Tikal and Copán.
The Acropolis of Athens as seen from the northeast.The wooded Hill of the Nymphs is half-visible immediately behind

niagara falls

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Niagara Falls are voluminous waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of New York. The falls are 17 miles (27 km) north-northwest of Buffalo, New York and 75 miles (121 km) south-southeast of Toronto, Ontario, between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York.

Niagara Falls is composed of two major sections separated by Goat Island: the Horseshoe Falls, which today is entirely on the Canadian side of the border,[1] and the American Falls on the American side. The smaller Bridal Veil Falls are also located on the American side, separated from the main falls by Luna Island.

Niagara Falls were formed when glaciers receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation (the last ice age), and water from the newly formed Great Lakes carved a path through the Niagara Escarpment en route to the Atlantic Ocean. While not exceptionally high, the Niagara Falls are very wide. More than 6 million cubic feet (168,000 m³) of water falls over the crest line every minute in high flow,[2] and almost 4 million cubic feet (110,000 m³) on average. It is the most powerful waterfall in North America.[3]

The Niagara Falls are renowned both for their beauty and as a valuable source of hydroelectric power. Managing the balance between recreational, commercial, and industrial uses has been a challenge for the stewards of the falls since the 19th century.

* 1 Characteristics
* 2 Geology
* 3 History
* 4 Impact on industry and commerce
o 4.1 Power
o 4.2 Transport
* 5 Preservation efforts
* 6 In entertainment and popular culture
o 6.1 Over The Falls
o 6.2 Movies and television
o 6.3 Music
o 6.4 Literature
* 7 Tourism
o 7.1 American side
o 7.2 Canadian side
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Footnotes
* 11 External links
o 11.1 Fiction
o 11.2 Non-Fiction


Niagara Falls is divided into the Horseshoe Falls and the American Falls. The Horseshoe Falls drop about 173 feet (53 m), and the height of the American Falls varies between 70–100 feet (21–30 m) because of the presence of giant boulders at its base. The larger Horseshoe Falls are about 2,600 feet (790 m) wide, while the American Falls are 1,060 feet (320 m) wide.

The volume of water approaching the falls during peak flow season may sometimes be as much as 202,000 cubic feet (5,700 m3) per second.[4] Since the flow is a direct function of the Lake Erie water elevation, it typically peaks in late spring or early summer. During the summer months, 100,000 cubic feet (2,800 m3) per second of water actually traverses the falls, some 90% of which goes over the Horseshoe Falls, while the balance is diverted to hydroelectric facilities. This is accomplished by employing a weir with movable gates upstream from the Horseshoe Falls. The falls flow is further halved at night, and during the low tourist season in the winter, remains a flat 50,000 cubic feet (1,400 m3) per second. Water diversion is regulated by the 1950 Niagara Treaty and is administered by the International Niagara Board of Control (IJC).[5] Viewpoints on the American shore generally are astride or behind the falls. The falls face directly toward the Canadian shore.

The features that became Niagara Falls were created by the Wisconsin glaciation about 10,000 years ago. The same forces also created the North American Great Lakes and the Niagara River. All were dug by a continental ice sheet that drove through the area, deepening some river channels to form lakes, and damming others with debris.[6] Scientists believe that there is an old valley, buried by glacial drift, at the approximate location of the present Welland Canal.

When the ice melted, the upper Great Lakes emptied into the Niagara River, which followed the rearranged topography across the Niagara Escarpment. In time, the river cut a gorge through the north facing cliff, or cuesta. Because of the interactions of three major rock formations, the rocky bed did not erode evenly. The top rock formation was composed of erosion-resistant limestone and Lockport dolostone. That hard layer of stone eroded more slowly than the underlying materials. The aerial photo clearly shows the hard caprock, the Lockport Formation (Middle Silurian), which underlies the rapids above the falls, and approximately the upper third of the high gorge wall.
Aerial view of Niagara Falls, showing parts of Canada and the United States

Immediately below the hard-rock formation, comprising about two thirds of the cliff, lay the weaker, softer, sloping Rochester Formation (Lower Silurian). This formation was composed mainly of shale, though it has some thin limestone layers. It also contains ancient fossils. In time, the river eroded the soft layer that supported the hard layers, undercutting the hard caprock, which gave way in great chunks. This process repeated countless times, eventually carving out the falls.

Submerged in the river in the lower valley, hidden from view, is the Queenston Formation (Upper Ordovician), which is composed of shales and fine sandstones. All three formations were laid down in an ancient sea, their differences of character deriving from changing conditions within that sea.

The Niagara Falls at one time in history was located between present-day Queenston, Ontario, and Lewiston, New York, but erosion of their crest has caused the waterfalls to retreat approximately 6.8 miles (10.9 km) southward. The Horseshoe Falls, which are approximately 2,600 feet (790 m) wide, have also changed their shape through the process of erosion; evolving from a small arch, to a horseshoe bend, to the present day gigantic inverted V.[7] Just upstream from the falls' current location, Goat Island splits the course of the Niagara River, resulting in the separation of the Canadian Horseshoe Falls to the west from the American and Bridal Veil Falls to the east. Engineering has slowed erosion and recession.[8]
1837 woodcut of Falls, from États Unis d'Amérique by Roux de Rochelle.

There are differing theories as to the origin of the name of the falls. According to Iroquoian scholar Bruce Trigger, "Niagara" is derived from the name given to a branch of the locally residing native Neutral Confederacy, who are described as being called the "Niagagarega" people on several late 17th century French maps of the area.[9] According to George R. Stewart, it comes from the name of an Iroquois town called "Ongniaahra", meaning "point of land cut in two".[10]

A number of figures have been suggested as first circulating an eyewitness description of Niagara Falls. Frenchman Samuel de Champlain visited the area as early as 1604 during his exploration of Canada, and members of his party reported to him the spectacular waterfalls, which he described in his journals. Finnish-Swedish naturalist Pehr Kalm explored the area in the early 18th century and wrote of the experience. The consensus honoree is Belgian Father Louis Hennepin, who observed and described the falls in 1677, earlier than Kalm, after traveling with explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, thus bringing the falls to the attention of Europeans. Further complicating matters, there is credible evidence that French Jesuit Reverend Paul Ragueneau visited the falls some 35 years before Hennepin's visit, while working among the Huron First Nation in Canada. Jean de Brébeuf also may have visited the falls, while spending time with the Neutral Nation.[11]
Man and woman on Canadian side of Niagara Falls, circa 1858
Maria Spelterini crossing the Niagara gorge on a tightrope on July 4, 1876

During the 18th century, tourism became popular, and by mid-century, it was the area's main industry. Napoleon Bonaparte's brother Jérôme visited with his bride in the early 19th century.[12] In 1837 during the Caroline affair a rebel supply ship, the Caroline, was burned and sent over the falls. In 1848, the falls actually went dry; no water (or at best a trickle) fell for as much as 40 hours. Waterwheels stopped, mills and factories simply shut down for having no power.[13] Later that year demand for passage over the Niagara River led to the building of a footbridge and then Charles Ellet's Niagara Suspension Bridge. This was supplanted by German-born John Augustus Roebling's Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge in 1855. After the American Civil War, the New York Central railroad publicized Niagara Falls as a focus of pleasure and honeymoon visits. With increased railroad traffic, in 1886, Leffert Buck replaced Roebling's wood and stone bridge with the predominantly steel bridge that still carries trains over the Niagara River today. The first steel archway bridge near the falls was completed in 1897. Known today as the Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, it carries vehicles, trains, and pedestrians between Canada (through Canadian Customs Border Control) and the U.S.A. just below the falls. In 1941 the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission completed the third current crossing in the immediate area of Niagara Falls with the Rainbow Bridge, carrying both pedestrian and vehicular traffic between the two countries and Canadian and U.S. customs for each country.

After the First World War, tourism boomed again as automobiles made getting to the falls much easier. The story of Niagara Falls in the 20th century is largely that of efforts to harness the energy of the falls for hydroelectric power, and to control the development on both sides that threaten the area's natural beauty.

A team from the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers dammed the falls in June 1969 in order to clear rock from the base of the falls. Rockslides had caused a significant buildup of rock at the bottom of the American side of the falls, and the engineers were to clean up the rock and repair some faults to prevent eventual erosion of the American side of the waterfall. A temporary dam was constructed to divert the flow of water to the Canadian side; the dam measured 600 feet (180 m) across and was made of nearly 30,000 tons of rock. The engineers cleared the rock debris and tested for safety, finishing the project in November of that year. The temporary dam was blown up to restore water flow.[14]

Before the late 20th century the northeastern end of the Horseshoe Falls was in the United States, flowing around the Terrapin Rocks, which was once connected to Goat Island by a series of bridges. In 1955 the area between the rocks and Goat Island was filled in, creating Terrapin Point.[15] In the early 1980s the United States Army Corps of Engineers filled in more land and built diversion dams and retaining walls to force the water away from Terrapin Point. Altogether 400 feet (120 m) of the Horseshoe Falls was eliminated, including 100 feet (30 m) on the Canadian side. As a result, the Horseshoe Falls is now entirely in Canada.[1]
Impact on industry and commerce
American Falls (large waterfall on the left) and Bridal Veil Falls (smaller waterfall on the right)

The enormous energy of Niagara Falls has long been recognized as a potential source of power. The first known effort to harness the waters was in 1759, when Daniel Joncaire built a small canal above the falls to power his sawmill. Augustus and Peter Porter purchased this area and all of American Falls in 1805 from the New York state government, and enlarged the original canal to provide hydraulic power for their gristmill and tannery. In 1853, the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Mining Company was chartered, which eventually constructed the canals which would be used to generate electricity. In 1881, under the leadership of Jacob Schoellkopf, Niagara River's first hydroelectric generating station was built. The water fell 86 feet (26 m) and generated direct current electricity, which ran the machinery of local mills and lit up some of the village streets.
Canadian Horseshoe falls as viewed from Skylon Tower.

The Niagara Falls Power Company, a descendant of Schoellkopf's firm, formed the Cataract Company headed by Edward Dean Adams,[16] with the intent of expanding Niagara Falls power capacity. In 1890, a five-member International Niagara Commission headed by Sir William Thomson among other distinguished scientists deliberated on the expansion of Niagara hydroelectric capacity based on seventeen proposals, but could not select any as the best combined project for hydraulic development and distribution. When Nikola Tesla, for whom a memorial was later built at Niagara Falls, New York (USA), invented the three-phase system of alternating current power transmission, distant transfer of electricity became possible, as Westinghouse and Tesla had built the AC-power Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant and proved it effective. In 1893, Westinghouse Electric was hired to design a system to generate alternating current on Niagara Falls, and three years after that, the world's first large AC power system was created, activated on August 26, 1895.[17] The Adams Power Plant Transformer House remains as a landmark of the original system.

By 1896, with financing from moguls like J.P. Morgan, John Jacob Astor IV, and the Vanderbilts, they had constructed giant underground conduits leading to turbines generating upwards of 100,000 horsepower (75 MW), and were sending power as far as Buffalo, 20 miles (32 km) away. Some of the original designs for the power transmission plants were created by the Swiss firm Faesch & Piccard, which also constructed the original 5,000HP waterwheels.

Private companies on the Canadian side also began to harness the energy of the falls. The Government of the province of Ontario, Canada eventually brought power transmission operations under public control in 1906, distributing Niagara's energy to various parts of the Canadian province.

Other hydropower plants were also being built along the Niagara River. But in 1956, disaster struck when the region's largest hydropower station was partially destroyed in a landslide. The landslide drastically reduced power production and tens of thousands of manufacturing jobs were at stake. In 1957, Congress passed the Niagara Redevelopment Act, which granted the New York Power Authority the right to fully develop the United States' share of the Niagara River's hydroelectric potential.[18]

In 1961, when the Niagara Falls hydroelectric project first went on line, it was the largest hydropower facility in the Western world. Today, Niagara is still the largest electricity producer in New York State, with a generating capacity of 2.4 gigawatts (million kilowatts). Up to 375,000 US gallons (1,420 m3) of water a second is diverted from the Niagara River through conduits under the City of Niagara Falls to the Lewiston and Robert Moses power plants. Currently between 50% and 75% of the Niagara River's flow is diverted via four huge tunnels that arise far upstream from the waterfalls. The water then passes through hydroelectric turbines that supply power to nearby areas of Canada and the United States before returning to the river well past the falls.[19] This water spins turbines that power generators, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. When electricity demand is low, the Lewiston units can operate as pumps to transport water from the lower bay back up to the plant's reservoir, allowing this water to be used again during the daytime when electricity use peaks. During peak electrical demand, the same Lewiston pumps are reversed and actually become generators, similar to those at the Moses plant.[18]

During tourist season, water usage by the power plant is limited by a treaty signed by the U.S. and Canada in 1950 to preserve this natural attraction. On average the Niagara river delivers 1,500,000 US gallons (5,700 m3) of water per second, half of which must flow over the falls during daylight hours from April through October. During other times the power plant may use up to three fourths of the total available water. During winter the Power Authority of New York works with Ontario Power Generation, to prevent ice on the Niagara River from interfering with power production or causing flooding of shoreline property. One of their joint efforts is an 8,800-foot (2,700 m)–long ice boom, which prevents the buildup of ice, yet allows water to continue flowing downstream.[18]

The most powerful hydroelectric stations on the Niagara River are the Sir Adam Beck 1 and 2 on the Canadian side and the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant and the Lewiston Pump Generating Plant on the American side. Together, Niagara's generating stations can produce about 4.4 GW of power.

In August 2005 Ontario Power Generation, which is responsible for the Sir Adam Beck stations, announced plans to build a new 6.5 miles (10.5 km) tunnel to tap water from farther up the Niagara river than is possible with the existing arrangement. The project is expected to be completed in 2009, and will increase Sir Adam Beck's output by about 182 MW (4.2%).
Panoramic view of American and Horseshoe Fall

leshan giant buddha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

he Leshan Giant Buddha (simplified Chinese: 乐山大佛; traditional Chinese: 樂山大佛; pinyin: Lèshān Dàfó) was built during the Tang Dynasty (618–907AD). It is carved out of a cliff face that lies at the confluence of the Minjiang, Dadu and Qingyi rivers in the southern part of Sichuan province in China, near the city of Leshan. The stone sculpture faces Mount Emei, with the rivers flowing below his feet. It is the largest carved stone Buddha in the world [1] and at the time of its construction was the tallest statue in the world.

The Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1996. It was not damaged by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.[2]

* 1 History
* 2 Degradation
* 3 Dimensions
* 4 Gallery
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links

[edit] History

Construction was started in 713, led by a Chinese monk named Haithong. He hoped that the Buddha would calm the turbulent waters that plagued the shipping vessels travelling down the river. When funding for the project was threatened, he is said to have gouged out his own eyes to show his piety and sincerity. After his death, however, the construction was stuck due to insufficient funding. About 70 years later, a jiedushi decided to sponsor the project and the construction was completed by Haitong's disciples in 803.
Head of the statue, comparing in size to a spectator in the background.

Apparently the massive construction resulted in so much stone being removed from the cliff face and deposited into the river below that the currents were indeed altered by the statue, making the waters safe for passing ships.
[edit] Degradation

The Leshan Buddha has fallen victim to the pollution emanating from the unbridled development in the region. According to Xinhua news agency: "The Leshan Buddha and many Chinese natural and cultural heritage sites have succumbed to weathering, air pollution, inadequate protection and negative influences brought by swarms of tourists." The local government has shut factories and power plants close to the statue. However, the statue is already suffering a "blackened nose" and smears of dirt across the face. The government has promised to give restoration to the site.[3]
[edit] Dimensions

At 71 metres (233 feet) tall, the statue depicts a seated Maitreya Buddha with his hands resting on his knees. His shoulders are 28 metres wide and his smallest toenail is large enough to easily accommodate a seated person. There is a local saying: "The mountain is a Buddha and the Buddha is a mountain". This is partially because the mountain range in which the Leshan Giant Buddha is located is thought to be shaped like a slumbering Buddha when seen from the river, with the Leshan Giant Buddha as its heart.

christ the redeemer

Christ the Redeemer (statue)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other statues with this name, see Christ the Redeemer (disambiguation).
Christ the Redeemer

Nearest city Rio de Janeiro, BrazilNearest city: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Coordinates 22°57′6″S 43°12′39″W / 22.95167°S 43.21083°W / -22.95167; -43.21083Coordinates: 22°57′6″S 43°12′39″W / 22.95167°S 43.21083°W / -22.95167; -43.21083
Established Dedicated October 12, 1931
Consecrated October 12, 2006
New Seven Wonders of the World July 7, 2007 Established: Dedicated October 12, 1931
Consecrated October 12, 2006
New Seven Wonders of the World July 7, 2007

Christ the Redeemer (Portuguese: Cristo Redentor) is a statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; considered the second largest Art Deco statue in the world.[1][2] The statue is 39.6 metres (130 ft) tall, including its 9.5 meter (31 feet) pedestal, and 30 metres (98 ft) wide. It weighs 635 tonnes (700 short tons), and is located at the peak of the 700-metre (2,300 ft) Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city. A symbol of Christianity, the statue has become an icon of Rio and Brazil.[3] It is made of reinforced concrete and soapstone, and was constructed between 1922 and 1931.[1][4][5]

* 1 History
* 2 New Seven Wonders of the World
* 3 Restoration
* 4 Portrayal in fiction
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links

[edit] History
A view of the statue, as seen from a helicopter

The idea for erecting a large statue atop Corcovado was first suggested in the mid-1850s, when Catholic priest Pedro Maria Boss requested financing from Princess Isabel to build a large religious monument. Princess Isabel did not think much of the idea and it was dismissed in 1889, when Brazil became a republic with laws mandating the separation of church and state.[6] The second proposal for a landmark statue on the mountain was made in 1921 by the Catholic Circle of Rio.[7] The group organised an event called Semana do Monumento ("Monument Week") to attract donations and collect signatures to support the building of the statue. The donations came mostly from Brazilian Catholics.[1] The designs considered for the "Statue of the Christ" included a representation of the Christian cross, a statue of Jesus with a globe in his hands, and a pedestal symbolizing the world.[8] The statue of Christ the Redeemer with open arms was chosen. It is a symbol of peace as well. There are small spikes on top of the statue in order to prevent birds from resting on it.
A view of the statue from the back.

Local engineer Heitor da Silva Costa designed the statue; it was sculpted by French sculptor Paul Landowski.[9] A group of engineers and technicians studied Landowski's submissions and the decision was made to build the structure out of reinforced concrete (designed by Albert Caquot) instead of steel, more suitable for the cross-shaped statue.[6] The outer layers are soapstone, chosen for its enduring qualities and ease of use.[4] Construction took nine years, from 1922 to 1931 and cost the equivalent of US$250,000 ($3,068,097 in 2011). The monument was opened on October 12, 1931.[4][5] The statue was meant to be lit by a battery of floodlights triggered remotely by shortwave radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi, stationed 5,700 miles (9,200 km) away in Rome[7], but poor weather affected the signal and it had to be lit by workers in Rio.[6]

In October 2006, on the statue's 75th anniversary, Archbishop of Rio Cardinal Eusebio Oscar Scheid consecrated a chapel (named after the patron saint of Brazil—Nossa Senhora Aparecida, or "Our Lady of the Apparition,") under the statue. This allows Catholics to hold baptisms and weddings there.[5]

The statue was struck by lightning during a violent electrical storm on Sunday, February 10, 2008 and suffered some damage on the fingers, head and eyebrows. A restoration effort was put in place by the Rio de Janeiro state government and archdiocese, to replace some of the outer soapstone layers and repair the lightning rods installed on the statue.[10][11][12]

On April 15, 2010 graffiti was sprayed on the statue's head and right arm. Mayor Eduardo Paes called the act "a crime against the nation" and vowed to jail the vandals, even offering a reward of R$ 10,000 on any information that may lead to an arrest.[13][14] The Military Police eventually identified house painter Paulo Souza dos Santos as the suspect of the act of vandalism.
[edit] New Seven Wonders of the World

On 7 July 2007, Christ the Redeemer was named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a list compiled by the Swiss-based The New Open World Corporation.[15] Leading corporate sponsors, including Banco Bradesco and Rede Globo, had lobbied to have the statue voted into the top seven.[16]
[edit] Restoration

Declared a protected monument by the National Heritage Institute, IPHAN, in 2009, the Christ the Redeemer monument underwent restoration work in 1980 before the visit of Pope John Paul II.

In 1990, further restoration work was conducted through an agreement between the Archdiocese of Rio de Janeiro, media company Rede Globo, oil company Shell do Brasil, environment regulator IBAMA, National Heritage Secretariat SPHAN and the city government of Rio de Janeiro.

More work on the statue and its environs was conducted in 2003 and early 2010. In 2003, a set of escalators, walkways and elevators was installed to facilitate access to the platform surrounding the statue.

The four-month restoration in 2010,[17] carried out by mining company Vale in partnership with the Archdiocese,[citation needed] focused on the statue itself. The statue's internal structure was renovated and its soapstone mosaic covering was restored by removing a crust of fungi and other microorganisms and repairing small cracks. The lightning rods located in the statue’s head and arms were also repaired. New lighting fixtures would be installed at the root of the statue to produce an all new dynamic lighting effect on the statue.[18]

The restoration involved one hundred people and used in excess of 60,000 pieces of stone, taken from the same quarry as the original statue.[17] During the unveiling of the restored statue, it was illuminated with green and yellow lighting in support of the Brazil national football team playing in the 2010 FIFA World Cup.[17]

Maintenance work needs to be conducted periodically due to the strong winds and rain to which the statue is exposed.[19]
[edit] Portrayal in fiction

Christ the Redeemer is featured in various works of fiction and media. The statue was featured in a major destruction scene in the movie 2012 . It is featured in the videogames Tom Clancy's H.A.W.X, Driver 2, Tropico 3, Terranigma, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, OSS 117: Lost in Rio, Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword and Civilization V. It can be seen in the video for Janet Jackson's, "Runaway" and in the video for the Latin group Wisin & Yandel's "Pam Pam" video. The statue is also found in an episode of the Lupin the Third anime series.